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SUDAN

sudan_flagSudan occupies 2.5 million. Km2 in the North-East Africa, in the north-east by the Red Sea. Until 1956 — Condominium Egypt and the UK. Official language — Arabic. Most of the Sudan — Darfur plateau (highest point — Mount Marr, 3088 m) and Kordofan, in the south — the spurs of the Central Upland (Kinyeti mountain, 3187 meters — the highest point of the country), in the east — spurs of the Ethiopian highlands. In broad tectonic depression in the eastern part of the country from south to north flows the main river Sudan — Nile Basin which owns all of the smaller rivers — the Bahr el Jebel, Blue Nile, Sobat, and others. The climate is transitional from equatorial monsoon in the south to the tropical desert in the north. Throughout the year, keep high temperatures in summer of more than 20-30 ° C, in winter — not less than 15-19 ° C. Rainfall in the north very little — less than 200 mm per year, with a very long dry spell. South more moist (500-1400 mm of rainfall per year), and the dry season is less than two months (the main rains fall from May to October).
Accordingly, diverse vegetation: almost the entire south of Sudan is covered by tall savannah (grass reaches a height of 3 m) with a variety of groves of trees, including valuable timber and river valleys are found wet gallery forests. Spurs of the Ethiopian highlands and the Central Plateau are covered with tropical mountain forests, on one hectare of which there are hundreds of species of trees. In the Middle Sudan, with its drier climate, widespread cereal typical savannah with scattered acacia trees along it, tamarind and giant baobabs (circumference of some trunks up to 45 m). North typical savanna gives way to desert savannah with sparse cover of low-growing grasses and prickly acacias. In the north, the Libyan desert stretches, covered almost devoid of vegetation, sand dunes. Stunted forests are found only in the northern mountain slopes of the coast of the Red Sea. The fauna of the Sudan — is mostly savannah inhabitants: preserved herd of elephants, oryx antelope, gazelles, giraffes, lions, leopards, rivers — hippos, crocodiles. Rich lives in coastal waters of the Red Sea.
The population of Sudan (more than 25 million. People) was formed on the migration routes between the Arab world and Central Africa, which determined the complexity of the ethnic composition: over half the population — the Arabs, in the valley of the Nile live Nubians in the south — Negroid Nuer, Shilluk and others. Nilotic language group, the western borders — Zande, Madi and other people who speak the languages ​​of the Sudanese group. The dominant religion is, in fact, has the status of state — Islam. The country has Sharia law, which — in combination with the conditions of semi-military dictatorship and almost constant fighting in the south — is not conducive to the development of tourism. Negroid populations often remains committed to the traditional culture and beliefs (ancestor worship, and so on. D.), Supported by the traditional crafts: wood sculpture, masks, weaving grass, ornamented utensils. In the north are doing fine work of embossed leather. The capital of Sudan — Khartoum, covers an area of ​​about 120 square meters. km and is actually three cities of Khartoum, Khartoum North and Omdurman. In the capital, is dominated by low houses, many parks, there is the National Museum, and the Museum of Natural History at the University. Other major cities — Port Sudan, Wad Medani, El Obeid.

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