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GUINEA

165Guinea is located in West Africa, off the coast of the Atlantic Ocean, washing the 300-kilometer heavily indented coastline. Area — 245.8 thousand. Km2. Until 1958, Guinea was a colony of France, now — a presidential republic with a population of about 7.4 million. People. The official language — French. Most of Guinea lies in subequatorial belt. Average air temperature — from 18 ° to 27 ° C, the hottest month — April, the coldest — August. Precipitation falls mainly in the summer, but the territory is very unevenly distributed: on the coast of 170 rainy days a year, falls to 4300 mm of rain, and in the inland areas, separated from the ocean mountain range — no more than 1500 mm.
The country is located within the ancient African platform, broken by numerous faults, faults with the outputs of volcanic rocks. Deep river valleys and hilly low mountain massifs make Guinea-like hill country. The biggest hill — Fouta Djallon (highest mountain — tamgas 1537 m), limiting the narrow coastal lowland and upland North Guinea on the south-east of the country (the highest mountain of Nimba, 1752 m above sea level). Fouta Djallon Plateau geographers called «water tower of West Africa», t. To. Here begins the major rivers of the region — the Gambia and Senegal. In the North of Guinea hill starts and the Niger River (here called Djoliba). Numerous rivers Guinea usually unnavigable because of the numerous rapids and waterfalls, as well as due to the sharp fluctuations of the water level.
Traveller striking bright red or red-brown soils of savannas and forests of Guinea, rich with iron oxides. Despite the poverty of the soil, complicating agriculture, natural vegetation is very rich. Along the rivers are still preserved gallery tropical rainforests, although in most other places they are a result of human activity are replaced with dry tropical forests and wooded savannahs. In the north you can see the real tall savanna, and on the ocean coast — mangroves. Along the shore of the ocean common coconut palm, oil palm Guinean and other exotic plants that make like a botanical garden, even the streets of major cities. The fauna of the country is still rich: Save the Elephants, hippos, various species of antelope, panthers, cheetahs, monkeys are numerous (especially baboons live in large herds). It should also mention forest cats, hyenas, mongooses, crocodiles, large and small snakes and lizards and hundreds of species of birds. Numerous and insects, among which are many and dangerous, carrying pathogens of yellow fever and sleeping sickness (tsetse fly).
Almost all of Guinea’s population belongs to the Negroid race. The most numerous is the Fulani people inhabiting mainly the plateau Fouta Djallon. Other nations belong to a linguistic subgroup of the Mande: Malinke, Korak, Susu. The official language, French, owns only a small part of the population, and the most common language Fula, Malinke, Soussou. 60% of the population — the Muslims, about 2% — Christians, the rest follow traditional beliefs. Most of the population is engaged in agriculture (animal husbandry and the cultivation of rice, cassava, sweet potato, corn). The capital and largest city of Guinea — Conakry (about 1400 thousand. Inhabitants). Other major cities — is predominantly industrial centers and transportation hubs Cancun, Ph.D., Labe, as a rule, are not of interest for tourists.