05Modern Algeria — one of the largest and most developed countries in Africa, located off the coast of the Mediterranean Sea and covers an area tysyam 2381.7 km2. Until 1962, Algeria was a French colony. Official language — Arabic.
The country occupies the central part of the mountain range of the Atlas and the Sahara desert. Relief Northern Algeria is represented by two major mountain ranges — the Coastal (or Tel-Atlas) and Saharan Atlas and intermountain plains. The highest point — Mount Tahat (3003 meters) in the Ahaggar Highlands. Saharan territory occupied by stony deserts — Hamad and sandy — ergs. The river network is poorly developed (the main — river Shelif), most of the rivers are regularly dry. Climate Northern Algeria — subtropical Mediterranean. The average January temperature is 5-12 ° C, in July — 25 ° C, rainfall of up to 1200 mm in the mountains and 200-400 mm in the plains. In the Sahara, much hotter, and the rainfall is less than 50 mm.
The vegetation is typical of the north of Algeria for the Mediterranean: dense thickets of shrubs and small trees (evergreen mastic, wild olive, pistachio, acacia and so on. D.) Occupy the mountain slopes up to a thousand meters, something which has pine groves. Above there are a thousand meters from the forest of evergreen oaks (holm and cork), Aleppo pine trees are now rare Lebanese cedars. The flat areas of Northern Algeria occupied by dry steppes. In a deserted part of the country is very poor in vegetation and sparse.
The population (around 27 million people) — Algerians, descendants of the ancient Berbers and Arabs, mostly Muslims. In the north, dominated by sedentary agricultural population (over 95% of the total), in a deserted part of the residents (including the Berbers) still retain the traditional way, engaged in nomadic cattle breeding. The capital of the country — the ancient city of Algiers, which spreads an amphitheater on the hills near the bay of the same name. Most buildings built from light construction material, gives the city a festive look. A kind of Arabic Kasbah in the old part of town with a bizarre mess of narrow streets and one-story houses with flat roofs, slender mosques and other buildings in oriental style. Among them are built in the XVII century mosque, the tomb of Sidd Abdarrahman Jami Mosque and al-Jadid. Other major cities — Oran, Annaba, Constantine.